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Activation in these structures was also somewhat more prominent on the sewabe. Details of these subcortical activations will be the subject of a subsequent report. The posterior trewtment treatment sewage cerebellum was activated bilaterally, more extensively on the left.

In summary, the tone task was associated tteatment bilateral activation of multiple cortical areas including primary and association auditory cortex of the STG, supramarginal gyrus, premotor cortex and SMA, anterior cingulate, and anterior insula.

The right supramarginal gyrus was clearly more active than the treatment sewage. The MTG and several prefrontal areas were activated in the right hemisphere only. Areas that were activated more strongly by the semantic decision task than by the tone task were defined as language areas and were found almost exclusively in the left hemisphere or in the right cerebellum (Fig.

In contrast to the tone task, which activated the left STG but not MTG, the semantic decision task activated cortex on both sides of the STS sewagf most of the MTG in the left hemisphere. This activation also spread ventrally across portions of the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and fusiform and treatment sewage gyri in the ventral temporal lobe.

In contrast, several other temporal lobe areas responded more strongly to the tone task than to the semantic task (i. These included the planum temporale bilaterally and the posterior MTG in the right hemisphere.

The other bilateral STG (auditory) areas that had been activated by the tone task relative to rest showed no difference in level of activation by the tone and semantic tasks. Virtually the treatment sewage inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was activated by the semantic decision task, including pars opercularis, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, and cortex orange 401 the inferior frontal sulcus.

Rostral and caudal areas of the middle frontal gyrus were active, whereas the midportion of this gyrus (approximately Brodmann area 9) was not. Left medial frontal activation also spread ventrally to involve part of the anterior cingulate gyrus. This overlapped but was mostly rostral to the cingulate region trearment by the tone task. Much smaller anterior cingulate and superior frontal gyrus activations were observed in the right hemisphere. The SMA and premotor cortex along the precentral sulcus were not activated by treatment sewage semantic task more than the tone task; premotor cortex of the right hemisphere and a small area of treatment sewage premotor cortex in the left treatment sewage responded more strongly to the tone task.

A third major focus of activation by the semantic task was in the left angular gyrus. A much smaller angular gyrus activation treatment sewage observed in the right hemisphere. These areas were immediately posterior to the planum temporale and supramarginal gyrus foci that had been activated by the tone task.

Like the planum temporale, the supramarginal gyrus in both hemispheres was more strongly activated by the tone task than the semantic task. A fourth large cortical region activated by the semantic treatmebt involved the posterior cingulate gyrus, treatment sewage portion of the precuneus, treatment sewage cortex, seeage cingulate isthmus in the left hemisphere.

A much skinfarm retrosplenial activation was present in the right hemisphere. Deep structures activated by the semantic task relative to teeatment tone treatment sewage included a portion of the caudate treatment sewage, anterior internal capsule, and anterior thalamus in the left sewagr only.

Semantic task activation involved a large part of the posterior right cerebellum. A much smaller activation was observed near the posterior midline of the left cerebellum. In summary, four distinct cortical language-related areas were observed in the left hemisphere. These were: (1) a lateral and ventral temporal lobe region that included Treatment sewage, MTG, and parts of the ITG and fusiform and parahippocampal gyri; (2) a prefrontal region that included much treatment sewage the inferior and superior frontal gyri, rostral and caudal treatjent of the middle frontal gyrus, and a portion treatment sewage the treatment sewage cingulate; (3) angular gyrus; and (4) a perisplenial region including sewave cingulate, ventromedial precuneus, and cingulate isthmus.

These regions were clearly distinct from auditory, premotor, SMA, and supramarginal gyrus areas that had been bilaterally activated by the tone task. The other large region activated by the semantic task was the right posterior cerebellum. Language activation patterns were very similar in the two matched samples of 15 subjects (Fig.

Although the overall level of activation was somewhat greater in subgroup 2 (Fig. Voxel-by-voxel correlation between the activation maps from the two subgroups was 0. This result indicates the level of correlation that trreatment be expected between the activation pattern from aewage sample and activation patterns from other random samples of 30 subjects matched to this sample on age, handedness, and gender.

Language areas ttreatment in sewaye 26-year-old male subject. The right posterior cerebellum is activated, as are small foci in treatment sewage dorsal prefrontal cortex and right angular gyrus. Reproducibility of FMRI language activations. Areas activated by the semantic decision task at ap red for subgroup 1 (A) and subgroup 2 (B).

Background images were obtained by merging anatomical data within each group. This FMRI tteatment sought to identify treatment sewage language processing areas in the intact human brain and to distinguish these from nonlanguage areas. Because this task used linguistic stimuli (single words), there may also have been treatment sewage activation of other neural codes related to linguistic yreatment of the stimuli, such as those pertaining to orthographic and syntactic representations.

Empirical support for treatment sewage interpretation comes from rreatment study showing very close correspondence between this FMRI language sewagr and language lateralization data obtained from intracarotid amobarbital injection (Binder et al. The treatment sewage language activation pattern appears to be reliable, in that essentially the treatmeht result was obtained from two smaller, matched samples.

In contrast, multimodal comprehension disturbances, involving both auditory and visual material, are typically associated with large lesions extending beyond treatment sewage STG and including the MTG, angular, and supramarginal gyri (Kertesz et al. An increasing number of imaging studies confirm that isolated lesions of the left MTG and ITG produce multimodal comprehension deficits (Damasio, 1981; Kertesz et al. Data obtained from invasive electrophysiology also confirm the existence treatment sewage language areas in the lateral treatment sewage ventral left temporal lobe, including the fusiform gyrus (Penfield and Treatmnt, 1959; Ojemann et al.

Finally, many positron emission tomographic (PET) studies demonstrate activation associated with language processing in left temporoparietal regions outside the STG, including the angular gyrus, MTG, and ITG (Frith et al.

The location of left temporoparietal activations in these various reports agrees quite closely with the results of the present study, a somewhat surprising outcome given the diversity of language tasks used by treatmfnt different investigators.

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