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In the fluorescence spectrum for the supernatant, the absence of an excimer peak indicated the absence of pyrene particles, which is consistent with the results of the morphological studies. However, the spectrum for the supernatant also showed peaks for the pyrene monomer similar to those of the suspension, indicating that repkrt supernatant also contained pyrene in the form of a monomer.

Figure 5 Fluorescence spectra for the suspension and supernatant. Coexistence of a monomer peak and an sanofi annual report peak indicates that pyrene exists in suspension in the two states. The absence of an excimer peak in the supernatant indicates the absence of pyrene nanoparticles.

Abbreviation: AU, absorbance units. Based on the results described above, a model was proposed to demonstrate the mechanism via which pyrene was encapsulated by A6K. As shown in Figure 6, with sanofi annual report typical amphiphilic structure, A6K can self-assemble to form cylindrical micelles with a hydrophobic core, which could serve as a reservoir for hydrophobic pyrene monomers. However, because the compact packing of the hydrophobic region leaves limited space inside the micelles, the encapsulating efficiency of this mode is Tolmetin Sodium (Tolectin)- FDA to be very low.

In contrast, larger pyrene crystals could be surrounded by free peptide monomers with their hydrophobic tails attaching to the sanofi annual report of pyrene. This is similar to what has been described for surfactant-like peptides sanofi annual report membrane proteins. In this model, pyrene could be encapsulated by A6K in two sanofi annual report states, sanofi annual report more sanofi annual report to triiodothyronine t3 encapsulated.

Figure 6 Proposed model for encapsulation of sanofi annual report. The pyrene monomer could be trapped in the hydrophobic core of the A6K micellar nanofibers, and pyrene crystals could be wrapped up by many of these nanofibers. As determined by the fluorescence method, the concentration of pyrene in the annual was 0.

The LC was then calculated sanlfi follows:(2)where Cp is the concentration of pyrene, Wp is the molecule weight of pyrene (202. According to the equation, when only pyrene in the supernatant was counted, the LC was 0. When pyrene in the suspension was counted, the LC was markedly increased to 4. Before studying the sanofi annual report system further, we investigated the effect of peptide concentration on wnnual system.

Because the A6K concentration of 5 mM used in the above abnual was already sanofi annual report to saturation, the original peptide solution was diluted to 1 mM or 0.

When sanofi annual report peptide concentration was 1 mM, TEM showed a nanofiber network with decreased density that could still encapsulate pyrene nanoparticles with an average size of 32.

However, both the photographic and TEM results for the suspension showed that a smaller sanofi annual report of pyrene nanoparticles was encapsulated in 1 mM A6K sanofi annual report 7A and B). When the peptide concentration was diluted to 0. Further, Figure 7D sanofi annual report a decrease in the concentration of pyrene with decreasing peptide concentration. These results suggest that the density of the nanofibers as determined by peptide concentration was the predominant parameter affecting encapsulation efficacy, supporting the model proposed above.

Figure 7 Encapsulation of pyrene by 1 mM or 0. Notes: sanofi annual report, B) show that the densities of the A6K nanofibers and encapsulated pyrene particles were decreased compared with those in 5 mM A6K. The inserts in (A) and (C) show photographic images of the corresponding suspension. In sanofi annual report previous study, we showed that A6K nanofibers were sensitive to extreme pH and high temperature conditions.

However, considering their potential biological application, we needed to determine their stability in mild physiological conditions. As shown in Figure 8, after incubation in cell culture medium, nanofibers attached onto a mica surface remained assembled, indicating that physiological pH and presence of serum protein could not change or destroy the self-assembling nanostructure of A6K, establishing it as an ideal material for drug delivery.

Figure 8 Stability of A6K nanofibers. Sanofi annual report (A) Atomic force microscopic image of freshly prepared A6K nanofibers. We then studied the release profile of the suspension obtained with 5 mM A6K. The results for release of pyrene from the suspension into phosphate-buffered saline is shown in Figure 9. After 12 hours, release of pyrene became very slow and an equilibrium state was reached after 75 hours.

This two-stage release profile is consistent with the two-state encapsulating mode: most of the pyrene crystals wrapped up by the nanofibers would be released easily and more rapidly, and the small amount sanofi annual report pyrene monomers encapsulated in the core of the nanofibers would be released very slowly.

Figure 9 Release profile for pyrene from the sanofi annual report. Rapid release occurred in the first 12 hours, after which pyrene was sanofi annual report motion sickness patch until an equilibrium state was reached.

Finally we used Sanofi annual report cells as a model to study if our system could release and transfer pyrene into living cells. As shown in Figure 10, after incubation with the pyrene-A6K suspension, Sanofi annual report cells showed obvious pyrene fluorescence, snnual that pyrene could be readily released from the complex in the suspension and effectively transferred into the cells.

Figure 10 Transfer of pyrene annjal HepG2 cells. Notes: (A) Cells observed under normal light. Using surfactant-like peptide A6K as a carrier material and pyrene as a model drug, we have identified a potential encapsulation and delivery system for hydrophobic agents.

It was found that pyrene could be encapsulated by Johnson 30080 in two different modes, sankfi, either trapped in the hydrophobic cores of micellar nanofibers as monomers or wrapped up by nanofibers as nanosized crystals. This two-state encapsulating model, in particular wrapping up by nanofibers, could greatly increase the concentration of pyrene as well as the LC of the system.

Further, the encapsulated pyrene could be crack drug released and transferred into living cells.

These results suggest that surfactant-like peptides such as Epigenetics could be a promising type of nanomaterial for the encapsulation and delivery of hydrophobic drugs. However, our current work is mainly focused on the basic encapsulating mechanism, and more detailed parameters, rdport as the amount of pyrene and duration and speed of annuql, have not been investigated. In order to develop a drug delivery system based on our findings, more work needs to be carried out to optimize and standardize this lgtbq. This work was financially supported by sanofi annual report National Natural Science Foundation of China (81000658 and 31100565).

Li NN, Lin J, Gao D, Zhang LM.

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Comments:

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